There are four climate types in the Philippines according to the Modified Corona's Classification of Climate. These are the Types I, II, III, and IV.
This system of climate classification was devised by Fr. J. Corona in 1920 (Lantican 2001) and is based on average monthly rainfall. Accordingly, a dry month is one with less than 50 mm of rainfall but also considers dry a month having more than 100 mm of rainfall that comes after three or more very dry months.
Country-wide, the Philippines has a tropical climate with a relatively high temperature and humidity having abundant rainfall. This climate is largely similar to those of countries in Central America (kidlat.pagasa.dost.gov.ph, accessed January 28, 2011).
These four climate types are described below. The regions having the specific climate are obtained from Lantican (2001), citing Kintanar (1984).
Type I: Two pronounced seasons, dry from November to April, and wet during the rest of the year. Maximum rain period is from June to September.
Regions with Type I climate: Ilocos Region, western part of Mountain Province, western part of Nueva Ecija, Central Luzon, Metro Manila, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Tarlac, Pampanga, Bulacan, Bataan, Zambales, Occidental Mindoro, southern parts of Antique and Iloilo, northwestern part of Palawan, and the southern parts of Negros Oriental and Negros Occidental).
Type II: No dry season with a very pronounced maximum rain period from December to February. There is not a single dry month. Minimum monthly rainfall occurs during the period from March to May.
Regions with Type II climate: northern part of Kalinga Apayao, northwestern part of Cagayan, western part of Quezon Province, Polillo Island, Bicol Region, northeastern Samar, southern Leyte, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Agusan del Sur, Agusan del Norte, and Misamis Occidental.
Type III: No very pronounced maximum rain period, with a short dry season lasting only from one to three months, either during the period from December to February or from March to May. This climate type resembles type I since it has a short dry season.
Regions with Type III climate: northeastern part of Ilocos Norte, Kalinga-Apayao, Cagayan, Mountain Province, western part of Isabela, eastern part of Nueva Viscaya, Bulacan, eastern parts of Laguna and Batangas, Oriental Mindoro, Romblon, Marinduque, Aklan, Capiz, northern parts of Antique and Iloilo, Negros Occidental, Siquijor, Zamboanga del Sur, Basilan, Lanao del Sur, Bukidnon, Misamis Oriental, western part of Agusan del Sur, Lanao del Sur, Bukidnon, Misamis Oriental, western part of Agusan del Sur, and eastern Maguindanao.
Type IV: Rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year. This climate type resembles the second type more closely since it has no dry season.
Regions with Type IV climate: northern Kalinga-Apayao, eastern Cagayan, Isabela, Quezon Province, western part of Bicol Region, western Samar, southeastern Masbate, northern Leyte, northern part of Cebu, Bohol, Zamboanga del Sur, northern-eastern part of Zamboanga del Norte, Lanao del Norte, Sultan Kudarat, South Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Davao del Norte, Davao Oriental, eastern parts of Agusan del Norte, and Agusan del Sur.
Concepcion (2004) provides the average annual rainfall and typhoon frequencies in the following regions in the Philippines:
|REGION||AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL |
|CAR||2500-3600||2-2.5 times per year|
|Region I||2000-2750||1.7-2.5 times per year|
|Region II||1700-3000||1.7-2.5 times per year|
|Region III||1800-3800||1.7 times per year|
|Region IV||1550-3500||1.5 times per year|
|Region V||1450-3750||1.5 times per year|
|Region VI||2250-3350||once per year|
|Region VII||1350-1800||once per year|
|Region VIII||2850-3250||1.7 times per year|
|Region IX/ARMM||1750-2450||once in 12 years|
|Region X/CARAGA||2150-3650||once in 12 years to once per year|
|Region XI/CARAGA||800-4500||once in 12 years to once per year|
|Region XII/ARMM||1700-2250||once in 12 years|
CONCEPCION RN. 2004. Gateway to land and water information: Philippine national report. Retrieved Jan. 23, 2011 from http://www.apipnm.org/swlwpnr/reports/y_ta/z_ph/ph.htm.kidlat.pagasa.dost.gov.ph. n.d. Climate of the Philippines. Retrieved January 28, 2011 from http://kidlat.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/cab/climate.htm.
LANTICAN RM. 2001. The Science and Practice of Crop Production. College, Los Banos, Laguna, Phils.: SEAMEO SEARCA and UPLB. 330 p.
(Ben G. Bareja, January 2011)