Properties of Water: 1. Polarity and Hydrogen Bondinglist of Some Agricultural Crops and Animals With Their Diploid Chromosome Number

The chromosome number is one of the primary bases of hybridization in agricultural crops as well as in animals.

The diploid numbers of chromosomes are essentially constant within the same species.

It is an important topic of review in basic plant breeding.

Illustration of the physical structure of the chromosome
Illustration of the physical structure of the chromosome

It is the general rule that successful crosses are easier to achieve between individual plants under the same species rather than between different species under the same genus (interspecific cross).

Consequently, it is more difficult to produce an intergeneric hybrid. In sum, individuals which are closely related taxonomically are much easier to cross. 

However, it is not the diploid chromosome number alone that determines the ability of two parents to readily form a hybrid.

The main determinant is the karyotype, referring to the number, as well as the size and shape of the chromosomes of an individual.

Other considerations are the types of sex chromosomes, lethal genes, and polyploidy. 

Listed in the table below are the diploid chromosome numbers of some agricultural crops and various animal species.

Sources of information are provided.

Chromosome Number of Selected Species

Table CN-1. Diploid numbers of chromosomes of some crop and animal species.

ORGANISMSPECIESDIPLOID (2N) CHROMOSOME NUMBERSOURCE
Crops
AlfalfaMedicago sativa322
AvocadoPersea americana244
BarleyHordeum vulgare142,3
BermudagrassCynodon dactylon362
Broad beanVicia faba123
CashewAnacardium occidentale424
Corn (maize)Zea mays201,3
Cotton, American-EgyptianGossypium barbadense522
Cotton, uplandGossypium hirsutum522,3
DurianDurio zibethinus564
FlaxLinum usitatissimum302
Garden peaPisum sativum141,3
GrapeVitis vinifera384
GuavaPsidium guajava224
Kidney beanPhaseolus vulgaris223
MangoMangifera indica404
Oats, whiteAvena sativa422
Oats, redAvena byzantina422
OnionAllium cepa163
PapayaCarica papaya184
PeanutArachis hypogaea402
PineappleAnanas comosus504
PotatoSolanum tuberosum482,3
RiceOryza sativa242,3
RyeSecale cereale142
SorghumSorghum vulgare202
SoybeanGlycine max402
SquashCucurbita pepo403
Sugar beetBeta vulgaris182
Sugar caneSaccharum officinarum802
TamarindTamarindus indica244
TobaccoNicotiana tabacum482,3
TomatoLycopersicon esculentum243
Wheat, durumTriticum durum282
Wheat, commonTriticum vulgare422
Wheat, clubTriticum compactum422
Animals
ManHomo sapiens461,3
CatFelix domesticus383
CattleBos taurus603
ChickenGallus domesticus781
DogCanis familiaris783
DonkeyEquus asinus623
FrogRana pipiens263
Fruit flyDrosophila melanogaster81,3
GrasshopperMelanoplus differentialis243
HoneybeeApis mellifera323
HorseEquus calibus643
House flyMusca domestica121,3
MosquitoCulex pipiens63
RabbitOryctolagus cuniculus443
Red antFormica sanguinea483
Rhesus monkeyMacaca mulatta423

REFERENCES

1HARTL DL, FREIFELDER D, SNYDER LA. 1988. Basic Genetics. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 505 p.

2POEHLMAN JM. 1977. Breeding Field Crops. Connecticut: AVI Publishing Co., Inc. 427 p.

3STRICKBERGER MW. 1976. Genetics. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. 914 p.

4VERHEIJ EWM, CORONEL RE (eds.). 1992. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.2: Edible Fruits and Nuts. Bogor, Indonesia: Prosea Foundation. 447 p.

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