The essential plant nutrients, or essential elements, are listed in the
table below. It enumerates 16 chemical
elements of which the essentiality for plant growth and reproduction has been
established according to the criteria formulated by D.I. Arnon and P.R.
Stout in 1939. This listing has existed
since 1954 with chlorine as the latest addition (cited by Hopkins 1999)
1. Major elements and trace elements. Of the 16
listed, 9 are major elements or
macronutrients and 7 are trace elements or micronutrients. Major elements are those which are needed by plants for their
growth and reproduction in relatively large amounts while trace elements are needed in smaller amounts compared to the
former. The major elements are further subclassified into structural elements (carbon, oxygen and
hydrogen), primary macronutrients
(nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium), and secondary macronutrients (calcium, sulfur, and magnesium).
2. Mineral and non-mineral nutrients. Mineral nutrients are absorbed by plants primarily in ionic form from the soil while non-mineral nutrients are absorbed either from the soil or from the atmosphere as a component of compounds. The elements numbered 4 to 16 in the list are considered mineral nutrients. The carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen are considered non-mineral nutrients. They are sourced from carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) which are reactants in the process of photosynthesis.
|ELEMENT||ATOMIC WEIGHT||FORMS ABSORBED||RANGE OF CONCENTRATION|
IN DRY TISSUE*
|Major Elements or Macronutrients|
|1. Carbon (C)||12.01||CO2||45% (450,000 ppm)|
|2. Oxygen (O)||16.00||CO2, O2||45% (450,000 ppm)|
|3. Hydrogen (H)||1.01||H20||6% (60,000 ppm)|
|4. Nitrogen (N)||14.01||NO3-, NH4+||0.5-6% (5,000-60,000 ppm)|
|5. Phosphorus (P)||30.97||H2PO4-, HPO42-||0.15-0.5% (1,500-5,000 ppm)|
|6. Potassium (K)||39.10||K+||0.8-8% (8,000-80,000 ppm)|
|7. Calcium (Ca)||40.08||Ca2+||0.1-6% (1,000-60,000 ppm)|
|8. Sulfur (S)||32.06||SO42-||0.1-1.5% (1,000-15,000 ppm)|
|9. Magnesium (Mg)||24.31||Mg2+||0.05-1% (500-10,000 ppm)|
|Trace Elements or Micronutrients|
|10. Iron (Fe)||55.85||Fe2+, Fe3+||20-600 ppm|
|11. Chlorine (Cl)||35.45||Cl-||10-80,000 ppm|
|12. Manganese (Mn)||54.94||Mn2+||10-600 ppm|
|13. Zinc (Zn)||65.38||Zn2+||10-250 ppm|
|14. Copper (Cu)||63.54||Cu+, Cu2+||2-50 ppm|
|15. Boron (B)||10.81||BO33-, H3BO3||0.2-800 ppm|
|16. Molybdenum (Mo)||95.94||MoO42-||0.1-10 ppm|
* Modified from Epstein (1994; ppm equivalent of concentration expressed in percent (%) is supplied).
Note: Emanuel Epstein of the University of California- Davis has added nickel (Ni) into the list of essential plant nutrients (Epstein 1994).
(Ben G. Bareja Jan. 2013)
Apr 06, 19 04:31 AM
Reviews the existence of plant sex with some notes leading to its discovery by Camerarius.
Apr 05, 19 10:52 AM
Some of the major factors to consider in crop selection are discussed with the assumption that a farm is already available.
Apr 02, 19 11:23 AM
Cover crops have numerous benefits, also as source of forage and as groundcover in landscaping.