Plant Structure: Introduction to the Parts of the Plant Body and Functions in the Angiosperms

Crop science requires a substantive understanding of plant structure in the angiosperms, specifically the morphology and anatomy of the plant body and the functions of the different parts.

The angiosperms or true flowering plants, also called Angiospermae, Magnoliophyta, and Anthophyta should be given prime attention because they comprise most of the living plants (more than 95%) and food crops (Simpson 2010).

By knowing the different parts of plants and how each part participates in growth, development, and adaptation, it will be possible to make necessary manipulations of the plant and of the environment for improved crop production.

Familiarity with the different morphological and anatomical terms will likewise enhance understanding of the concepts, practices, and advances as well as become useful in the identification, rearing, and improvement of crop plants.

Main Divisions of the Plant Body

The parts of the plant body of the angiosperms are divided into two distinct systems: the root and shoot.

In terrestrial plants, the root system is the plant organ that is normally underground (descending) while the shoot system is above ground (ascending).

The root system consists of the primary root and its branches, or a mass of fibrous roots.

The plant shoot system consists of the stem, leaves, and reproductive organs.

The parts of the plant body are also differentiated into two kinds of functional plant organs: vegetative and reproductive.

The vegetative structures include the root, stem, and leaves; the reproductive parts consist of the flower, fruit, and seed.

The Functions of the Different Plant Structures Are Interconnected

In general, it is the root that provides anchorage and absorbs water and nutrient elements which are transported to the leaves via the stem (trunk, branches, and twigs).

At the same time, the leaves absorb carbon dioxide from the air which is utilized in the production of carbohydrate through the process of photosynthesis.

This carbohydrate is in turn transported, again via the stem, to the different parts of the plant, including the roots and the reproductive structures.

At certain periods of organ development, the stored photosynthate may again be retransported to other plant organs.

Of course, the entire growth processes are more complicated and requires an intimate look into the internal plant structures, biochemistry, and the various plant growth factors.

But the starting point is the familiarization of the external parts of the plant body and the gross internal structure of the various plant organs, how they are formed, their functions in plant development, and their various uses to man.

Similarly in humans, the education of a child always starts with the identification of the different parts of the body.

My toes, my knees, my shoulder, my head. . .

For specific examples to illustrate how important it is to know the different plant structures, you may contemplate the questions below.

After a while, you may click on any of the links to read. The page will appear in a separate window.

Do grasses like bamboo have flowers?

What does the US Supreme Court say about fruits and vegetables?

What plant organs can produce clones of parent plants?

This question to be answered requires a deeper understanding of plant structure: What plant(s) photosynthesizes through stems only in its entire life?

This page introduces the reader to a more specific review of the different parts of the plant body from roots to seeds. This is a work in progress.

To find the list of references, click here.

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Ben Bareja

Ben Bareja, the owner-founder-webmaster of This website was conceptualized primarily to serve as an e-library for reference purposes on the principles and practices in crop science, including basic botany. Read more here

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