Green Coconut Can Generate More Profit

My inclusion of green coconut as an alternative option in the master plan for the farm was recently boosted.

BusinessWorld reported on April 26, 2019 that a company in the Philippines inked a business deal to supply $36.5 million worth of green coconuts to China.

This report further restrengthened author’s impression on young nuts which already peaked upon discovery of that exceptionally prolific coconut tree in the farm.

To understand more, this ought to be read as a continuance of a separate page.

A link is provided at the bottom.

Long before the report, I already started propagating and planting these medium-sized nuts at the farm.

I rationalized that medium-sized nuts would offer more options instead of relying heavily on copra as a product for marketing.

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Contribution to the History of Photosynthesis: Jean Senebier

Jean Sénébier (1742-1809). Jean Senebier was a Swiss pastor and botanist from Geneva.

He established that carbon dioxide (fixed air) was essential to photosynthesis.

He showed that plants absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen (dephlogisticated air) (Govindjee and Krogmann 2005).

His research on plants was encouraged by the discovery of Jan Ingenhousz in1780 that a green leaf did not produce “dephlogisticated air” in boiled distilled water.

This means that where water does not contain carbon dioxide, a submerged leaf does not produce oxygen.

However, it was Jean Senebier who later made the conclusion (Egerton 2008).

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Review: Natural Mechanisms That Deter Self-pollination But Favor Cross-pollination

There are crops which produce fruits and seeds mainly after undergoing cross-pollination, like corn, instead of self pollination.

Knowing the inherent characteristics of any particular plant as to the natural mechanisms briefly discussed below should prove valuable to any one who wishes to engage in crop improvement.

Indeed, basic procedures on plant breeding have been designed according to the natural modes of pollination of crops.

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What Are Those Fibers Derived From Fiber Crops, Their Classifications, and Characteristics

Fiber crops are plants that are intentionally grown or otherwise managed for the production of fibers or fibrous materials with varied uses but not for dietary purposes.

Fibers are mainly  schlerenchyma cells that serve as component of plant skeleton and are often associated with vascular tissue.

These are usually long cells with pointed ends which typically occur in strands.

Any part of the plant such as the root, stems, leaves, fruits and seeds can have fibers but they differ in characteristics such as texture, length, color, strength, and chemical composition.

The abaca or Manila hemp, considered as the world’s premier fiber crop for making cords and ropes, has fibers which can reach 3 meters long.

These fibers have reportedly been used as composite materials in the manufacture of certain parts of cars (Obmerga 2011).

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Two Strains of Molave Tree Distinguished

I am quite familiar with the molave tree (Vitex parviflora Juss.), also called small-flower chaste tree,  molawintugas, and many other vernacular names.

At least I am confident enough that I can identify the tree in any size, on field or on a pot, including stocked logs and posts, with respectable accuracy.

I’m likewise familiar with the two strains or types growing in the province of Sarangani and in General Santos City, Philippines, known locally as the tugas babae and the tugas lanhan.

However, whether the two are simply botanical variants of the same species or they are distinct species need further enlightenment from plant taxonomists.

In this paper and elsewhere in this site, the use of the term strain and type are merely for convenience and does not connote an expert determination of the issue.

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How to Propagate the Molave Tree?

The molave tree (Vitex parviflora Juss.) is a plant belonging to the family Verbenaceae.

It is a close relative of the five-leaved chaste tree or lagundi (Vitex negundo).

Also called molawin and tugas, it is a medium- to large-sized, drought-tolerant, hardwood tree which is indigenous to the Philippines and other Asian countries. It has multiple uses.

In Sarangani, Philippines, these trees naturally grow on limestone, sinking their roots into crevices.

Two types are indigenous in the province. One is locally called tugas babae (“babae” is Filipino word for woman). The other type is called tugas lanhan (“lanhan” means oily).

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Agronomic Crops Compared With Horticultural Crops: A General Reference

What comprises the agronomic crops?

There is no unanimous agreement, but there is wide support that the species in each of the following plant groupings belong to the domain of agronomy:

  • cereal or grain crops;
  • grain legumes or pulses and oilseed crops for food, feed, or industrial use;
  • pasture and forage crops;
  • fiber crops;
  • sugar crops;
  • and starchy root and tuber crops.

From the different divisions or branches of horticulture, the horticultural crops consist of the olericultural or vegetable crops, pomological or fruit crops and edible nuts, floricultural and other ornamental crops, and nursery crops.

In addition, the aromatic crops and the medicinal crops are generally included.

The ornamental crops are further grouped into flowering and foliage plants which are grown for special purposes such as for cutflowers, potted plants, landscaping, interior decoration, or floral arrangement.

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What Is Light Intensity, Effects on Plant Growth

Light intensity or light quantity refers to the total amount of light that plants receive. It is also described as the degree of brightness that a plant is exposed to.

In contrast to light quality, the description of the intensity of light does not consider wavelength or color. 

The intensity of light is usually measured by the units lux (lx) and footcandle (fc).

One footcandle means the degree of illumination 1 foot away from a lighted standardized wax candle; 100 footcandles is 1 foot away from 100 candles that are lighted simultaneously.

Lux (pl. luces) is the unit of illumination that a surface receives one meter away from a light source.

One footcandle is equal to 10.76391 luces and 1 lux is approximately equal to 0.093 footcandle.

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Contribution to the History of Photosynthesis: Stephen Hales and Charles Bonnet

Stephen Hales (1677-1761).

Often referred to as the founder or father of plant physiology (Devlin 1975; Hopkins 1999; Egerton 2008), Hales pioneered quantitative physiology.

He was born in Kent, England, and studied theology at Cambridge, but also read mathematics, physics, and botany.

He became a clergyman but also devoted much of his time to scientific pursuits, particularly in the conduct of experiments in plant physiology. 

His most important work, Vegetable Staticks (published in 1727), was in plant physiology.

He suggested that plants derive something from the atmosphere (Rook 1964), a guess that future researchers have proven correct and has become an essential component of the process of photosynthesis in plants.

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The Different Fruit Types in the Angiosperms

There are many fruit types depending on the criteria under consideration.

The plant organ called fruit in the angiosperms may be classified according to the number of ovaries incorporated in the structure, origin of development, nature and structure of the pericarp, ability of the fruit to split apart when mature and the manner in which this occurs, and the attachment of the seed to the ovary.

According to the number of ovaries in the structure, there are three fruit types: simple, aggregate, and multiple.

Simple fruits are most common in the angiosperms.

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