List of Terms on Plant Classification According to Natural Adaptation

Various terms on plant classification are here reviewed grouping and describing plants according to their natural habitat or ecological adaptation.

These terms facilitate communication and understanding about agricultural crops or potential crops for various purposes such as crop selection for gardening or crop farming, research and development, and plant collection.

Substantial understanding of plant classification and plant adaptation is likewise important in applying more efficient methods for the commercialized production of crops.

In The Plants (1963), there is mention that the pygmy cedar (Peucepyllum) has the unique ability to live without soil water.

It replenishes its water supply from the water vapor in the air at night time.

This is amazing because it is always presumed that terrestrial plants naturally obtain water from the soil.

After all, terrestrial plants have roots which are anchored on the soil.

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Types of Transpiration in Plants: Stomatal, Cuticular, and Lenticular

There are three types of transpiration, the process in which water is lost from plants in the form of gas or vapor: stomatalcuticular, and lenticular.

These are briefly described below.

1. Stomatal transpiration

Among the three types of transpiration, this is the most dominant being responsible for most of the water loss in plants.

It accounts for 90-95%  of the water transpired from leaves.

As the name suggests, the process involves the participation of the stomata (sing. stoma) or stomates, microscopic pores in the epidermis of the leaves.

Liquid water is first absorbed by the plant through its roots from the soil.

It is then translocated via the xylem tissue in a continuous stream towards the mesophyll cells of the leaves.

Either at the surfaces of the mesophyll cells or of the epidermal cells close to stomata, liquid water is converted to water vapor.

It then escapes through the stomatal pore at the time when it is open to allow entry of CO2 and release of O2. 

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Methods in Many Palm Plants Apply to Kaong Propagation

Kaong propagation requires the use of seeds. Wildlings can also be collected from forest floor or under the canopy of mature plants.

These methods, including pregermination treatments before seeding, have been widely used in many palm species such as anahaw (Livistona rotundifolia), buri (Corypha elata), Macarthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), royal palm (Roystonea regia), yellow palm (Chrysalidocarpus lutescens) and rattans.

This is so because these plants and kaong (Arenga pinnata), also called gomuti and sweet palm, belong to the same botanical family Palmae or Arecaceae. These palm plants share common characteristics which affect plant propagation.

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Methods of Planting: III. Comparison of Broadcasting, Hill, and Drill

In broadcasting, the only basis for planting is the total seeding rate usually expressed in the weight of seeds per unit area.

Example: 50-100 kg per hectare for lowland rice.

There are no rows and uniform plant-to-plant distances are not considered.

It is possible to calculate the total plant population and the average number of plants per unit area upon germination if the average weight and the germination percentage of seeds are known.

A replicated sampling of stand count per square meter or any sample area can also give a good estimate of the total population. 

In both the hill and drill methods of planting by direct seeding, there is a desired row-to-row spacing.

Take mungbean, for example. The distance between adjacent rows may be 60 cm.

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The Main Branches of Horticulture Plus Other Descriptors

Based on crop grouping and plant use, the main divisions or branches of horticulture are:

1. Olericulture – The production of vegetables includes storage, processing, and marketing.

Vegetable crops are grown for their succulent and edible parts such as the roots, stems, leaves, young tops, flowers, fruits, or seeds for use in culinary preparations either fresh or preserved in the fresh state.

2. Pomology – The branch of horticulture that deals with fruit crop production. Fruit crops are grown for their edible fruits which, as a rule, are consumed raw.

3. Floriculture – The cultivation and management of cut flowers, flowering plants, and foliage plants (Louisiana State University 2011) including their use in an ornamental construct such as flower arrangement (ISHS 2011).

A term that is used interchangeably with floriculture is ornamental horticulture.

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More Efficient Mango Production Thru Integrated Farming System

The traditional Filipino farmer is not unfamiliar with integrated farming system (IFS), multiple cropping, and sustainable agriculture.

He who lives in the farm and mainly depends for subsistence from its produce should be ingenious.

He has to be, being short always of capital.

In order to maximize production from a farm with a limited area, he had to invent the “bahay kubo” or multiple cropping systems.

And then integrate it with the raising of livestock animals, poultry, and fish, where suitable.

In farms large enough to require the constant use of the plow, the carabao is always there (but click here to read the impact of Btrr corn on carabao).

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The Plastic Tent Method Can Babysit Your Pet Plant

The plastic tent method, also called kulob method, is the technique of enclosing potted planting materials with a plastic bag.

The method is commonly practiced in plant propagation by stem cuttings.

But it has another important application, one which can be considered as both cost-saving and life-saving.

Cost-saving in the sense that the technique eliminates the need to hire labor or to pay services.

Life-saving too, that is, for your favorite plant.

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Here’s a Practical DIY Guide in Making Liquid Fertilizer Using Granular Materials

There’s an easy and quick way to prepare liquid fertilizer. All it takes is to dissolve urea (46-0-0) in water.

This dilute solution can be immediately used for soil drench and spray application to supplement nitrogen to plants in need of the nutrient or to ensure its availability.

1% urea solution can be prepared just before application

1% urea solution can be prepared just before application

The basic procedure that we follow is based on the long-established fact that 1% urea solution can be sprayed or used to water many plants including the leafy vegetable pechay (Brassica sp.).

As for maintenance fertilizer for potted seedlings in the nursery, we do the watering once a week to once every two weeks.

But first, the theoretical basis.

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Pointers in Propagating Molave Trees Using Seeds and Fruits

Both sexual and asexual methods are applicable in propagating molave or tugas trees (Vitex parviflora Juss.).

Sexual methods consist of using extracted seeds and intact fruits, including wildlings that originate from the embryo within seeds.

Asexual methods include the use of stem cuttings.

This paper is about the propagation of molave using fruits and seeds.

The use of wildlings and stem cuttings as propagating materials is dealt with on another page (click here to read).

But first, the distinction between the fruit and seed of the molave tree.

A molave tree has many tiny flowers (~6-8 mm long), attached to the branches of a panicle (flower cluster like that in rice) having a peduncle (stalk) that emerges from the tip of a stem.

After pollination and double fertilization, each flower develops into a plant organ which is botanically called fruit (click to read What is a Fruit?). 

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Growing Bamboo Is a Promising Crop Farming Venture: Does the 2010 Promise Remain True?

The agribusiness potential of growing bamboo has expanded.

This is primarily due to advances in engineered bamboo technology in conjunction with the worldwide concern to mitigate global warming.

I wrote these in 2010. 

A sympodial or clump-type bamboo locally called "botong"
A sympodial or clump-type bamboo locally called “botong”

Note: Herein author wrote a school paper on bamboo in the late 1990s. It consisted of more than 30 computer-encoded pages for class reporting in graduate school. It’s a waste, that paper did not survive to this day.

Nevertheless, he published via the Web an e-book entitled “Bamboo Production and Propagation Methods” in 2010.

It also contained a statement on the feasibility of growing bamboo.

Funny, one website now assumes some kind of ownership of the book.

I myself, with my name clearly shown on the first page, could not download the file unless I register which requires giving my credit card number.

The copyright notice “Copyright @2010” is also reflected at the bottom of every page.

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