The Plant Root System Distinguished From the Shoot, Its Functions

The plant root system constitutes the major part of the plant body, both in terms of function and bulk.

In terrestrial plants, the root system is the subterranean or underground part of the plant body while the shoot is the aboveground part.

Roots are branching organs that grow downward into the soil, a manifestation of geotropism.

Branching occurs irregularly and not from nodes as in stems.

In contrast, to shoot, the plant root has no leaves, nodes, internodes, and buds. With rare exceptions, roots also lack stomata.

Other morphological and anatomical features which are distinct to the root are:

(1) a hard, protective root cap at the tip of the root;

(2) absence of the pith;

(3) presence of endodermis;

and (4) the presence of a pericycle next to the endodermis.

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What Are Cereal Crops and Pseudocereals, Examples

Cereal crops are interchangeably called grain crops.

In many publications and correspondence, they are simply called grains or cereals.

As of 2012, the top 5 cereals in the world ranked on the basis of production tonnage are maize (corn), rice (paddy), wheat, barley, and sorghum.

These crops are also among the top 50 agricultural commodities in the world with maize ranking second next to sugarcane.

Rice (paddy) ranks third, wheat – 4th, barley – 12th, and sorghum – 30th. Another cereal, millet, ranks no. 42 (FAOStat 2014, updated Aug. 18, 2014).

According to Chapman and Carter (1976), “a cereal is generally defined as a grass grown for its small, edible seed.”

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Plant Types: III. Cam Plants, Examples, and Plant Families

CAM plants are those which photosynthesize through Crassulacean Acid Metabolism or CAM photosynthesis.

They are expectedly succulent plants. That is, they are fleshy plants having a low surface-to-volume ratio.

Pineapple is a CAM plant
Pineapple is a CAM plant. It is widely grown around the world primarily for its fruit but fiber from leaves is also used in cloth making and other products

However, not all succulents belong to this plant type.

Many halophytes (plants adapted to salty soils) are succulents but are not CAM (Hopkins 1999; Moore et al. 2003).

These plants are adapted to dry, desert habitats.

They comprise up to about 20,000 species in about 40 families, equivalent to some 8% of all land plants.

They are found in the families Isoetaceae (lycophytes), Polypodiaceae (ferns), Vittariaceae (ferns), Zamiaceae (cycads), and Welwitschiaceae (Gnetales), as well as in numerous families in the angiosperms (Simpson 2010).

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The Transpiration Pull, Other Mechanisms Explaining the Ascent of Water in Plants

The transpiration pull is just one of the mechanisms that explain the movement or translocation of water in plants, particularly water ascent in tall trees.

There is no single exacting explanation as yet for the ascent of water but several theories have been proposed.

Of these, the one which has gained wide support is the cohesion-tension theory which recognizes the crucial role of transpiration pull as a driving force. These theories are briefly described below.

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What Is Agriculture, Definition of Agriculture

There are many online queries on what is agriculture although its history started more than 10,000 years ago.

I used to think that this is quite amazing because the word agriculture is of common usage.

On second thought, I now realize that this seemingly high interest in clarifying the term is justified in view of its large coverage, its varied application as a science, practice, business, and for other purposes including legal matters, and with new technologies and specialized fields continuously added into its fold.

I use one definition as a compressed answer to the main question “What is Agriculture?

It is thus described as both an art and a science (needs skill and is founded on scientifically verified facts) and thus includes specialized disciplines; the words “growing” and “raising” are descriptive of enterprise, activity, or practice.

It has two main divisions: plant or crop production and animal or livestock production.

And its ultimate purpose is for food production, other human needs such as clothing, medicines, tools, artistic display, dwelling, and feed for animals, or for economic gain or profit. 

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List of Grain Legumes or Pulses: Top Producers in the World

Grain legumes, also called pulses, are plants belonging to the family Leguminosae (alternatively Fabaceae) which are grown primarily for their edible seeds.

These seeds are harvested mature and marketed dry to be used as food or feed or processed into various products.

Being legumes, these plants have the advantage of fixing atmospheric nitrogen for their own needs and for soil enrichment, thereby reducing the cost of fertilizer inputs in crop farming.

Crops that are harvested green for forage and for vegetables are excluded, as well as those grown for grazing or green manure.

Also excluded are the leguminous crops with seeds that are used exclusively for sowing, such as alfalfa and clover (FAO, 2010).

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How Often to Water Dracaena – The Only Guide You Need To Know!

How Often to Water Dracaena

You might have a dracaena plant in your home or you are thinking of buying one of the different types of dracaena plants.

The thing about the plants is that you need to water them correctly.

This is the only way to make sure that you are going to have a healthy plant that is looking beautiful all the time.

With this guide, you are going to learn more about how often to water the dracaena correctly, and other helpful information that will ensure that your plant is healthy and growing.

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How Often Should I Water a Poinsettia

How Often Should I Water a Poinsettia

Poinsettia or otherwise known as the Christmas flower. This is one of the most popular holiday flowers all over the world.

And, during the holidays this is the one flower that everyone wants.

The only problem is that this is a delicate plant and needs special care.

This is why so many people are struggling to get this flower to stay beautiful and to get the flower to bloom again, during the next season.

With this guide, you are going to get everything you need to know about poinsettia, how to care for it, the watering guide, and how often you should water the plant.

Everything to ensure that when the holidays start, your poinsettia will be as beautiful as the day you bought it.

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What Is Plant Propagation, Sexual and Asexual Methods Compared

Plant propagation is the branch of horticulture that deals with the deliberate (or intentional) production of new plants using various starter materials (e.g. organs, tissues), including their intensive but temporary care.

It is primarily practiced to produce seedlings or clones of nursery crops for outplanting, or for planting in containers for display or decor, or other uses.

Nursery crops are those which commonly require the use of pre-grown planting materials for outplanting, or field planting.

plant nursery is a place where seedlings, clones, and potted plants are raised temporarily under intensive care.

The basis of plant propagation is totipotency, the capability of cells to regenerate missing parts and, subsequently, an entire organism.

Applied to plants, it means that any live part that is separated from the parent plant is composed of live cells, can possibly produce missing organs of an intact plant, such as roots and shoot, and give rise to an entire plant.

It means that all plant organs with live cells, such as seeds, stems, etc., either intact or segmented, are potential propagules, or propagating materials.

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Plant Seed: The Reproductive Organ of the Angiosperms

The plant seed is an organ found in plant shoot, attached to the stem, and originating from a flower.

It is a structure that is formed by the maturation of the ovule within the ovary of the angiosperms.

It is often described as a “mature ovule”. 

In angiospermous plants, the natural process of seed development occurs through double fertilization.

This proceeds after pollination, the transfer of pollen grains from an anther to the stigma of a flower.

In double fertilization, one of the two sperm nuclei (1N) in the germinating pollen (pollen tube) unites with the egg nucleus (1N) in the female gametophyte or embryo sac within the ovule to form the diploid (2N) embryo of the seed.

The other sperm nucleus (1N) in the pollen tube unites with the polar nuclei (2N) in the embryo sac to form the triploid (3N) endosperm.

Meanwhile, the surrounding integuments of the ovule form the seed coat (2N).

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