More Explanation on Mendel’s Law of Segregation

The Law of Segregation is further explained with the aid of the illustration below.

The illustration uses the contrasting characters smooth vs. wrinkled seeds in Gregor Mendel’s experiments which led to the birth of the modern science of genetics.

The genotypes are provided correspondingly with the capital letter S representing the gene for smooth and the small letter s for the wrinkled character.

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Edible Flowers, Uses, and Common Flower Vegetables

There are many crop plants with edible flowers although, beware, there are also those with poisonous flowers.

These plants necessarily belong to the angiosperms because it is only in this group of plants that flowers are produced.

These flowers are edible in the sense that they or their parts can be eaten or incorporated in food preparation and drinks or otherwise ingested in some manner without adverse health effects.

Some edible flowers or blossoms are largely used as the main ingredients in the preparation of vegetable dishes and raw salads.

But there are other more uses such as for jelly making, flavoring or garnishing, or to add color or aroma with the wide application including in wines and beverages, syrups, vinegars, sauces, pastries, and cakes.

Generally, they are better used fresh but they can also be preserved or processed dry.

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Gregor Mendel’s Experiment With Garden Pea: III. F2 Dominants Are of Two Types

Initial results of Gregor Mendel’s monohybrid experiment on seed form or shape (round- x wrinkled-seeded parents) showed that the cross-fertilized garden peas (F1, his ‘hybrid’) exhibited only one character (he called it dominant) of either parent, that is, the round seededness.

He likewise found that the other parental character (wrinkled seeds) is only hidden in the F1 but reappeared in the F2 and in the succeeding generations.

He called this character recessive.

This observation was also true to the six other sets of characters that he investigated.

He demonstrated that the F2 progeny consisted of two phenotypic types: the dominants and the recessives.

The dominants are those which exhibit the dominant character only while the recessives are those which exhibit the recessive character only.

They occurred in the average proportion of 3:1.

Thus, as to seed shape, 3 were round-seeded and 1 was wrinkled-seeded in every four.

But he did not stop right there.

He proceeded further and made more discoveries.

He continued growing pea plants using seeds harvested in each generation and properly recorded his observations.

Since garden pea is a naturally self-pollinated plant, the next progenies (example F2) are largely selfed progenies of the next preceding generation (i.e., F1).

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Mendel’s 7 Parental Crosses of Garden Pea, Their Contrasting Characteristics

Gregor Mendel’s study on monohybrid inheritance using garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) consisted of seven experiments.

Each experiment dealt with a particular character and used two parental types (the pollen source and the seed bearer) which differed in the character under consideration.

These parents had constant characters (purelines) and were crossed artificially.

The resulting hybrids (F1) were then grown and evaluated continuously from generation to generation.

By the time that Mendel read his findings to the Brünn Natural History Society in 1865, he had produced six selfed progenies of the hybrids in Experiments 1 and 2, five in Experiments 3 and 7, and four in Experiments 4, 5, and 6 (Mendel 1865). 

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Why Planting Fruit Trees Should Attract More Traditional Corn Farmers

They should have started planting fruit trees and/or other perennial or permanent crops many years ago.

Their grandparents, their fathers and mothers, and they themselves should have realized long ago that their farms if only planted with the right crops, would have made their lives or the lives of their children more comfortable. 

Unfortunately for them, they did not and so they remain poor farmers whose main preoccupation is corn farming.

It’s not that there’s a tight cause-and-effect case, but it’s what they say.

Such is the common sad revelation of many of those owner-occupants of underdeveloped rainfed farms in far-flung rural areas in South Cotabato, Sarangani Province, and General Santos City (SOCSARGEN).

I happened to be friendly with these farmers.

We call such a corn monocropping system 1-2-1-2 ( or A-B-A-B) meaning that you always start planting to be able to harvest and after harvest, you again repeat the same 1-2 cycle.

At times when rain fails to come, the cycle could even become 1-1-2.

For the outsiders, theirs is a monotonous, exceedingly tiresome, and difficult lifestyle.

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Filling in the Gaps in the History of Evolution of the Molave Bonsai

The molave bonsai, as the bonsai using the molave tree (Vitex parviflora) as a specimen is now popularly called, has evolved into one of the favorites among aficionados in the Philippines.

It has now established a niche in the internet world. Its growing popularity was in fact obvious in the 7th Mindanao Open Bonsai Competition & Exhibit held in 2011 in General Santos City.

But up to 1994, my knowledge about bonsai was only restricted to balete (Ficus), which Cebuanos also call “dakit” and the Ilonggos “lonok.”

My initiation into the pursuit of this living art in fact started with my mother’s two balete trees which she grew in deep, ornamental clay pots at home.

These trees remained in those pots for years without repotting, and the roots just kept on rotating around the inside of the pots.

The soil inside had long been depleted, and continuing root growth pushed the trees upward so that much of enlarged bases of roots were visible.

She proudly called these bonsai, anyway.

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Gregor Mendel’s Experiments With Garden Pea: I. F2 Progeny

Gregor Mendel read his “Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden” (Experiments in Plant Hybridisation, translated by the Royal Horticultural Society of London) at the Meetings of the Natural History Society of Brünn in 1865.

It appeared in print in the following year.

Although this paper remained virtually unknown for more than thirty years, it ultimately gave birth to the science of genetics.

Hereunder is a summary reconstruction of some of Mendel’s methodology and part of his observations leading to the Law of Segregation.

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What Is Light Quality, Some Effects on Plant Growth

Light quality, also called spectral composition and spectral energy distribution (SED), refers to the composition of light as to wavelengths that are effective in photosynthesis and other plant growth and development processes. 

The wavelengths of light are expressed in small units of distance such as micron (μ) or micrometer (μm), nanometer (nm), and angstrom (Å).

One micron is one-millionth of a meter (10-6 meter); 1 nanometer is one-billionth of a meter (10-9 meter) or one one-thousandth of a micron, and 1 angstrom is one ten-billionth of a meter (10-10 meter) or one ten-thousandth of a micron.

The wavelengths with primary importance in photobiology are ultraviolet (UV), visible light, and infrared (IR) (Hopkins 1999).

According to Devlin (1975), wavelengths between 300 nm to 900 nm are capable of affecting plant growth.

However, it is not light quality alone that affects plant growth processes.

Other properties of light including light intensity and light duration, as well as other climatic factors, are also involved.

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Development in Plants: How Plants Grow From Seeds

In broad terms, the stages of development in plants can be divided into the following: vegetativereproductiveripening, and senescence.

Each stage can be subdivided into various component substages or phases.

Although plant development is cyclical, here the seed is considered as the starting point for the sequential events leading to a mature plant, the formation of seed, and finally death.

The stages of development are listed hereunder in order of occurrence and should also provide at least a general picture of how plants grow from seeds until they die.

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